- Congestive heart failure: Address congestive heart failure if present as previously mentioned.
- Anticoagulation treatment: When a hypercoagulable state is present, long term anticoagulation should be considered. Sinus thrombosis should be also addressed with anticoagulation. Precaution should be taken in cases of hemorrhagic presentation, which might require anticoagulation; treatment of the cause of bleeding is advisable before starting anticoagulation. In the case of open surgery, anticoagulation might have to be delayed 1 to 2 weeks after the procedure.
- Stereotactic radiosurgery: Stereotactic radiosurgery can be used to treat these malformations as previously mentioned. It is important to remember the potential complications of radiation in children such as possible cognitive impairment and delayed tumor formation