References for Brainstem Gliomas in Children

  1. Allen J: Brain stem glioma. Neurol Neurosurg Update Series 4: 2-7, 1983
  2. Frazier JL, Lee J, Thomale UW, et al: Treatment of diffuse intrinsic brainstem gliomas: failed approaches and future strategies. J Neurosurg Pediatr 3: 259-269, 2009
  3. Laigle-Donadey F, Doz FO, Delattre JY: Brainstem gliomas in children and adults. Curr Opin Oncol 20: 662-667, 2008
  4. Walker DA, Punt JA, Sokal M: Clinical management of brain stem glioma. Arch Dis Child 80: 558-564, 1999
  5. Epstein FJ, Wisoff JH: Intrinsic brainstem tumors in childhood: surgical indications. J Neurooncol 6: 309-317, 1988
  6. Albright L, Pollack I: Brainstem gliomas, in Winn HR (ed): Youmans Neurological Surgery. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2003
  7. Epstein FJ: Prognosis in pediatric brain-stem gliomas. J Neurosurg 67: 323-324, 1987
  8. Jallo GI, Biser-Rohrbaugh A, Freed D: Brainstem gliomas. Childs Nerv Syst 20: 143-153, 2004
  9. Kaplan M, Albright AL, Zimmerman RA, et al: Brainstem gliomas in children. A Children’s Cancer Group review of 119 cases. Pediatr Neurosurg 24: 185-192, 1996
  10. Freeman R, Farmer JP: Pediatric brain stem gliomas: a review. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 40: 265-271, 1998
  11. Littman P, Jarrett P, Bilaniuk LT, et al: Pediatric brain stem gliomas. Cancer 45: 2787-2792, 1980
  12. Berger MS, Edwards MS, LaMasters D, et al: Pediatric brain stem tumors: radiographic, pathological, and clinical correlations. Neurosurgery 12: 298-302, 1983
  13. Raffel C, McComb JG, Bodner S, et al: Benign brain stem lesions in pediatric patients with neurofibromatosis: case reports. Neurosurgery 25: 959-964, 1989
  14. Pollack I, Shultz B, Mulvihill JJ: The management of brainstem gliomas in patients with neurofibromatosis. Neurology 46: 1652-1660, 1996
  15. Pollack I, Mulvihill JJ: Special issues in the management of gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis. J Neurooncol 28(2-3): 257-268, 1996
  16. Behnke J, Christen HJ, Mursch K, et al: Intra-axial endophytic tumors in the pons and/or medulla oblongata. II. Intraoperative findings, postoperative results, and 2-year follow up in 25 children. Childs Nerv Syst, 13: 135-146, 1997
  17. Sanai N, Prados M: Brainstem gliomas, in Gupta N, Banerjee A, Haas-Kogan D (eds): Pediatric CNS Tumors. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2010, pp 49-65
  18. Epstein FJ, Farmer JP, Freed D: Adult intramedullary spinal cord ependymomas: the result of surgery in 38 patients. J Neurosurg 79: 204-209, 1993
  19. Scherer H: Structural development in gliomas. Am J Cancer, 33: 333-351, 1938
  20. Wolff, JE, Classen CF, Koontz, Z, et al: Subpopulations of malignant gliomas in pediatric patients: analysis of the HIT-GBM database. J Neurooncol 87: 155-164, 2008
  21. Wolff JE, Driever PH, Erdlenbruch B, et al: Intensive chemotherapy improves survival in pediatric high-grade glioma after gross total resection: results of the HIT-GBM-C protocol. Cancer 116: 705-712, 2010
  22. Cartmill M, Punt J: Diffuse brain stem glioma. A review of stereotactic biopsies. Childs Nerv Syst 15: 235-237; discussion 238, 1999
  23. Fisher PG, Breiter SN, Carson, BS, et al: A clinicopathologic reappraisal of brain stem tumor classification. Identification of pilocytic astrocytoma and fibrillary astrocytoma as distinct entities. Cancer 89: 1569-1576, 2000
  24. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, et al: WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System, in Louis DN, Ohgaki H ,Wiestler OD, et al (eds): International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyons: WHO Press, 2007, pp 13-32
  25. De Girolami U, Antony DC, Frosch, MP: The Central Nervous System, in Cotran RS, Kumar V, Collins, T (eds): Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1999, pp 1343-1351
  26. Pollack I, Hoffman HJ, Humphreys RP, et al: The long-term outcome after surgical treatment of dorsally exophytic brain-stem gliomas. J Neurosurg 78: 859-63, 1993
  27. Ueoka DI, Nogueira J, Campos JC, et al: Brainstem gliomas. Retrospective analysis of 86 patients. J Neurol Sci 281: 20–23, 2009
  28. Behnke J, Christen HJ, Bruck W, et al: Intra-axial endophytic tumors in the pons and/or medulla oblongata. I. Symptoms, neuroradiological findings, and histopathology in 30 children. Childs Nerv Syst 13: 122-134, 1997
  29. Albright L: Tumors of the pons. Neurosurg Clin N Am 4: 529-536, 1993
  30. Helton KJ, Weeks JK, Phillips NS, et al: Diffusion tensor imaging of brainstem tumors: axonal degeneration of motor and sensory tracts. J Neurosurg Pediatr 1: 270-276, 2008, doi:10.3171/PED/2008/1/4/270
  31. Sethi R, Allen J, Donahue B, et al: Prospective neuraxis MRI surveillance reveals a high risk of leptomeningeal dissemination in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. J Neurooncol 102: 121-127, 2011
  32. Albright AL, Packer RJ, Zimmerman R, et al: Magnetic resonance scans should replace biopsies for the diagnosis of diffuse brain stem gliomas: a report from the Children’s Cancer Group. Neurosurgery 33 1026-1029; discussion 1029-30, 1993
  33. Daglioglu E, Cataltepe O, Akalan N: Tectal gliomas in children: The implications for natural history and management strategy. Pediatr Neurosurg 38: 223–231 , 2003
  34. Mundinger F, Braus DF, Krauss JK, et al: Long-term outcome of 89 low-grade brain-stem gliomas after interstitial radiation therapy. J Neurosurg 75:740–746, 1991
  35. Yamaguchi S, Terasaka S, Kobayashi H, et al: Indolent dorsal midbrain tumor: new findings based on positron emission tomography. J Neurosurg Pediatr 3: 270–275, 2009
  36. Korinthenberg R, Neuburger D, Trippel M, et al: Long-term results of brachytherapy with temporary iodine-125 seeds in children with low-grade gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 79:1131-1138, 2011
  37. Morata N, Deletis V:  The importance of brainstem mapping in brainstem surgical anatomy before the fourth ventricle and implication for intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.  Acta Neurochir 148: 499-509, 2006
  38. Morata N, Ihara S, Deletis V: Intraoperative neurophysiology for surgery in and around the brainstem:  role of brainstem mapping and corticobulbar tract motor-evoked potential monitoring. Childs Nerv Syst 26: 513-521, 2010
  39. Neuloh G, Bogucki J, Schramm J:  Intraoperative preservation of corticospinal function in the brainstem.  J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80: 417-422, 2009
  40. Sala F, Krzan MJ, Deletis V:  Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in pediatric neurosurgery: why, when, how?  Childs Nerv Syst 18:264-287, 2002
  41. Kwon JW, Kim IO, Cheon JE, et al: Paediatric brain-stem gliomas: MRI, FDG-PET and histological grading correlation. Pediatr Radiol  36: 959–964, 2006
  42. Ahn ES, Goumnerova  L: Endoscopic biopsy of brain tumors in children: diagnostic success and utility in guiding treatment strategies. J Neurosurg Pediatr 5: 255–262, 2010
  43. Ramina R, Neto MC, Fernandes YB, et al: Intrinsic tectal low grade astrocytomas. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 63: 40-45, 2005     
  44. Kestle J, Townsend JJ, Brockmeyer DL, et al: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma of the brainstem in children. J Neurosurg (Pediatr 2) 101:1–6, 2004
  45. Shad A, Green A, Bojanic S, et al: Awake stereotactic biopsy of brain stem lesions: technique and results. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 147: 47–50, 2005
  46. Yen CP, Sheehan J, Steiner M, et al: Gamma knife surgery for focal brainstem gliomas. J Neurosurg 106:8–17, 2007
  47. O’Brien DF, Hayhurst C, Pizer B, et al: Outcomes in patients undergoing single-trajectory endoscopic third ventriculostomy and endoscopic biopsy for midline tumors presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg (3 Suppl Pediatr) 105:219–226, 2006
  48. Koziarski A, Zieliński G, Podgórski JK, et al: One stage removal of periaqueductal glioma in adult via infratentorial supracerebellar and transaqueductal approaches. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 146: 169–173, 2004
  49. Allen JC, Siffert J: Contemporary chemotherapy issues for children with brainstem gliomas. Pediatr Neurosurg, 24: 98-102, 1996
  50. Broniscer CC, Leite VL, Lanchote TM, et al: Radiation therapy and high-dose tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with diffuse brainstem gliomas: results of a Brazilian cooperative study. Brainstem Glioma Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol, 18: 1246-1253, 2000
  51. Blaney S, Berg SL, Pratt C, et al: A phase I study of irinotecan in pediatric patients: a pediatric oncology group study. Clin Cancer Res 7: 32-37, 2001
  52. Rutka JT, Kuo JS: Pediatric surgical neuro-oncology: current best care practices and strategies. J Neurooncol 69: 139-150, 2004
  53. Chiang KL, Chang KP, Lee YY, et al: Role of temozolomide in the treatment of newly diagnosed diffuse brainstem glioma in children: experience at a single institution. Childs Nerv Syst 26: 1035-1041, 2010
  54. Schild SE, Stafford SL, Brown PD, et al: The results of radiotherapy for brainstem tumors. J Neurooncol 40: 171-177, 1998
  55. Skowronska-Gardas A: Evaluation of radiotherapy for pediatric CNS tumors. Expert Rev Neurother 3: 491-500, 2003
  56. Hoffman KE, Yock TI: Radiation therapy for pediatric central nervous system tumors. J Child Neurol 24: 1387-1396, 2009
  57. Combs SE, Bischof M, Welzel T, et al: Radiochemotherapy with temozolomide as re-irradiation using high precision fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with recurrent gliomas. J Neurooncol 89: 205-210, 2008
  58. Mirza B, Monsted A, Harding J, et al: Stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery in pediatric patients: analysis of indications and outcome. Childs Nerv Syst 26: 1785-1793, 2010
  59. Khatib ZA, Heideman RL, Kovnar EH, et al: Predominance of pilocytic histology in dorsally exophytic brain stem tumors. Pediatr Neurosurg 20: 2-10, 1994
  60. Recinos PF, Sciubba DM, Jallo GI: Brainstem tumors: where are we today? Pediatr Neurosurg 43: 192-201, 2007
  61. Abbott R, Shiminski-Maher T, Wisoff JH, et al: Intrinsic tumors of the medulla: surgical complications. Pediatr Neurosurg 17: 239-44, 1991
  62. Bobo RH, Laske DW, Akbasak A, et al., Convection-enhanced delivery of macromolecules in the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 2076-2080, 1994
  63. Sandberg DI, Edgar MA, Souweidane MM: Effect of hyperosmolar mannitol on convection-enhanced delivery into the rat brain stem. J Neurooncol 58: 187-192, 2002
  64. Sandberg DI, Edgar MA, Souweidane MM: Convection-enhanced delivery into the rat brainstem. J Neurosurg 96: 885-891, 2002
  65. Occhiogrosso G, Edgar MA, Sandberg DI, et al: Prolonged convection-enhanced delivery into the rat brainstem. Neurosurgery 52: 388-393; discussion 393-394, 2003
  66. Croteau D, Walbridge S, Morrison PF, et al., Real-time in vivo imaging of the convective distribution of a low-molecular-weight tracer. J Neurosurg 102: 90-97, 2005
  67. Krauze MT, Vandenberg SR, Yamashita Y, et al: Safety of real-time convection-enhanced delivery of liposomes to primate brain: a long-term retrospective. Exp Neurol 210: 638-644, 2008
  68. Laske DW, Morrison PF, Lieberman DM, et al: Chronic interstitial infusion of protein to primate brain: determination of drug distribution and clearance with single-photon emission computerized tomography imaging. J Neurosurg 87: 586-594, 1997
  69. Lonser RR, Schiffman R, Robison RA, et al: Image-guided, direct convective delivery of glucocerebrosidase for neuronopathic Gaucher disease. Neurology 68: 254-261, 2007
  70. Lonser RR, Walbridge S, Garmestani K, et al: Successful and safe perfusion of the primate brainstem: in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of macromolecular distribution during infusion. J Neurosurg 97: 905-13, 2002
  71. Nguyen TT. Pannu YS, Sung C, et al: Convective distribution of macromolecules in the primate brain demonstrated using computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg 98: 584-590, 2003
  72. Souweidane MM, Occhiogrosso G, Mark EB, et al: Interstitial infusion of IL13-PE38QQR in the rat brain stem. J Neurooncol 67: 287-293, 2004
  73. Souweidane MM, Occhiogrosso G, Mark EB, et al: Interstitial infusion of carmustine in the rat brain stem with systemic administration of O6-benzylguanine. J Neurooncol 67: 319-326, 2004
  74. Luther N, Cheung NK, Dunkel IJ, et al: Intraparenchymal and intratumoral interstitial infusion of anti-glioma monoclonal antibody 8H9. Neurosurgery 63: 1166-1174; discussion 1174, 2008
  75. Luther N, Cheung NK, Dunkel IJ, et al: Interstitial infusion of glioma-targeted recombinant immunotoxin 8H9scFv-PE38. Mol Cancer Ther 9: 1039-1046, 2010
  76. Murad GJ, Walbridge S, Morrison PF, et al: Real-time, image-guided, convection-enhanced delivery of interleukin 13 bound to pseudomonas exotoxin. Clin Cancer Res 12: 3145-3151, 2006
  77. Murad GJ, Walbridge S, Morrison PF, et al: Image-guided convection-enhanced delivery of gemcitabine to the brainstem. J Neurosurg 106:351-356, 2007
  78. Szerlip NJ, Walbridge S, Yang L, et al: Real-time imaging of convection-enhanced delivery of viruses and virus-sized particles. J Neurosurg 107: 560-567, 2007
  79. Becher OJ, Hambardzumyan D, Walker TR, et al: Preclinical evaluation of radiation and perifosine in a genetically and histologically accurate model of brainstem glioma. Cancer Res 70: 2548-2557, 2010
  80. Zarghooni M, Bartels U, Lee E, et al: Whole-genome profiling of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas highlights platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase as potential therapeutic targets. J Clin Oncol 28: 1337-1344, 2010
  81. Paugh BS, Qu C, Jones C, et al: Integrated molecular genetic profiling of pediatric high-grade gliomas reveals key differences with the adult disease. J Clin Oncol 28:3061-3068, 2010
  82. Barrow J, Adamowicz-Brice M, Cartmill M, MacArthur D, Lowe J, Robson K, Brundler MA, Walker DA, Coyle B, Grundy R: Homozygous loss of ADAM3A revealed by genome-wide analysis of pediatric high-grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Neuro Oncol 13: 212-222, 2011
  83. Joshi BH, Puri RA, Leland P, et al: Identification of interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain overexpression in situ in high-grade diffusely infiltrative pediatric brainstem glioma. Neuro Oncol 10: 265-74, 2008
  84. Grill J, Puget S, Andreiuolo F, et al: Critical oncogenic mutations in newly diagnosed pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 58:489-491, 2012
  85. Li G, Mitra S, Monje M, et al: Expression of epidermal growth factor variant III (EGFRvIII) in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. J Neurooncol 108:395-402, 2012
  86. Puget S, Phillipe C, Bax D, et al: Mesenchymal transition and PDGFRA amplification/mutation are key distinct oncogenic events in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. PloS One 7:e30313, 2012
  87. Warren K, Killian K, Suuriniemi M, et al: Genomic aberrations in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Neuro Oncol 14:326-332, 2012
  88. Giussani C, Poliakov A, Ferri R, et al: DTI fiber tracking to differentiate demyelinating diseases from diffuse brain stem glioma. NeuroImage 52:217-223, 2010
  89. Poussaint T, Kocak M, Vajapeyam S, et al: MRI as a central component of clinical trials analysis in brainstem glioma: a report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC). Neuro Oncol 13:417-427, 2011
  90. Steffen-Smith E, Shih J, Hipp S, et al: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy predicts survival in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. J Neurooncol 105:365-373, 2011
  91. Poretti A, Meoded A, Huisman T: Neuroimaging of pediatric posterior fossa tumors including review of the literature. J Mag Res Imag 35:32-47, 2012
  92. Paugh BS, Broniscer A, Qu C, et al: Genome-wide analyses identify recurrent amplifications of receptor tyrosine kinases and cell-cycle regulatory genes in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. J Clin Oncol 29:3999-4006, 2011
  93. Kaplan AM, Albright AL, Zimmerman RA, et al: Brain stem gliomas in children. A Children’s Cancer Group review of 119 cases. Childs Nerv Syst 24:185–192, 1996
  94. Hargrave D, Bartels U, Bouffet E: Diffuse brainstem glioma in children: critical review of clinical trials. Lancet Oncol 7: 241-248, 2006
  95. Mauffrey C: Paediatric brainstem gliomas: prognostic factors and management. J Clin Neurosci 13: 431-437, 2006
  96. Thakur SB, Karimi S, Dunkel IJ, et al: Longitudinal MR spectroscopic imaging of pediatric diffuse pontine tumors to assess tumor aggression and progression. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27: 806-809, 2006
  97. Porto L, Hattingen E, Pilatus U, et al: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in childhood brainstem lesions. Childs Nerv Syst 23: 305-314, 2007
  98. Morota N, Deletis V, Epstein FJ, et al: Brain stem mapping: neurophysiological localization of motor nuclei on the floor of the fourth ventricle. Neurosurgery 37: 929-30, 1995
  99. Jallo GI, Shiminski-Maher T, Velazquez L, et al: Recovery of cranial nerve function after surgery for medullary brainstem tumors. Neurosurgery 56:75-77, 2005
  100. Weiner HL, Freed D, Woo HH, et al: Intra-axial tumors of the cervicomedullary junction: surgical results and long-term outcome. Pediatr Neurosurg 27:12-18, 1997
  101. Jallo G, Kothbauer K, Epstein, F: Surgical management of cervicomedullary and dorsally exophytic brain stem tumors. Oper Tech Neurosurg 3:131-136, 2000
  102. Li KW, Roonprapunt C, Lawson HC, et al: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus associated with tectal gliomas. Neurosurg Focus 18 (6A): E2, 2005
  103. Holliday MA, Segar WE: The maintenance need for water in parentral fluid therapy. Pediatrics 19: 823-832, 1957
  104. Kernohan JW, Sayre GS: Tumors of the Central Nervous System. Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Section X, Fascicle 35. Washington DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1952, pp 19–42