On The Horizon for Chemotherapy for Tumors in the Nervous System of Children

  • Stratification of therapy according to molecular profile: It is likely that Wnt signaling pathway medulloblastomas will require less radiation than the current standard (34); desmoplastic medulloblastomas may be cured with chemotherapy alone (29).
  • Signaling pathway inhibitors: These have been disappointing up to now; however, they may have a role in conjunction with chemotherapy in the future (28).
  • Personalized chemotherapy based on molecular behavior: The potential to personalize treatment according to the response of growing individual tumors in vitro may be a previously untapped possibility for aggressive tumors in the future (48).
  • Immunotherapy: This is currently being explored in clinical trials; this approach has been disappointing up to now (47).
  • Antiangiogenesis therapy: This approach is continuing to be evaluated (5).
  • Histone deacetylase inhibitors: These agents are currently in phase II clinical trials; their value remains to be determined (49).