References for Cervical Spine Anomalies in Children

  1. Anderson RC, Kan P, Gluf WM, et al: Long-term maintenance of cervical alignment after occipitocervical and atlantoaxial screw fixation in young children. J Neurosurg 105:55-61, 2006
  2. Anderson RC, Ragel BT, Mocco J, et al: Selection of a rigid internal fixation construct for stabilization at the craniovertebral junction in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg 107:36-42, 2007
  3. Bayrakli F, Guclu B, Yakicier C, et al: Mutation in MEOX1 gene causes a recessive Klippel-Feil syndrome subtype. BMC Genet 14:95, 2013
  4. Brockmeyer D, Apfelbaum R, Tippets R, et al: Pediatric cervical spine instrumentation using screw fixation. Pediatr Neurosurg 22:147-157, 1995
  5. Browd S, Healy LJ, Dobie G, et al: Morphometric and qualitative analysis of congenital occipitocervical instability in children: implications for patients with Down syndrome. J Neurosurg 105:50-54, 2006
  6. Citow JS, Munshi I, Chang-Stroman T, et al: C2/3 instability in a child with Down’s syndrome. Case report and discussion. Pediatr Neurosurg 28:143-146, 1998
  7. Coseo NM, Saldua N, Harrop J: Current use of biologic graft extenders for spinal fusion. J Neurosurg Sci 56:203-207, 2012
  8. Friedman JM: Epidemiology of neurofibromatosis type 1. Am J Med Genet 89:1-6, 1999
  9. Gluf WM, Brockmeyer DL: Atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation: a review of surgical indications, fusion rate, complications, and lessons learned in 67 pediatric patients. J Neurosurg Spine 2:164-169, 2005
  10. Hankinson TC, Avellino AM, Harter D, et al: Equivalence of fusion rates after rigid internal fixation of the occiput to C-2 with or without C-1 instrumentation. J Neurosurg Pediatr 5:380-384, 2010
  11. Hecht JT, Nelson FW, Butler IJ, et al: Computerized tomography of the foramen magnum: achondroplastic values compared to normal standards. Am J Med Genet 20:355-360, 1985
  12. Hensinger RN, Lang JE, MacEwen GD: Klippel-Feil syndrome; a constellation of associated anomalies. J Bone Joint Surg Am 56:1246-1253, 1974
  13. Herman MJ, Pizzutillo PD: Cervical spine disorders in children. Orthop Clin North Am 30:457-466, ix, 1999
  14. Klippel M, Feil A: Un cas d’absence des vertebres cervicales. Avec cage thoracique remontant jusqu’a la base du crane (cage thoracique cervicale). Nouv Iconog Salpetriere 25:223-250, 1912
  15. Lowry DW, Pollack IF, Clyde B, et al: Upper cervical spine fusion in the pediatric population. J Neurosurg 87:671-676, 1997
  16. Markunas CA, Soldano K, Dunlap K, et al: Stratified whole genome linkage analysis of Chiari type I malformation implicates known Klippel-Feil syndrome genes as putative disease candidates. PLoS One 8:e61521, 2013
  17. Mazur M, Sivakumar W, Riva-Cambrin J, et al: Avoiding early complications and reoperation during occipitocervical fusion in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr (in press)
  18. Menezes AH, Graf CJ, Hibri N: Abnormalities of the cranio-vertebral junction with cervico-medullary compression. A rational approach to surgical treatment in children. Childs Brain 7:15-30, 1980
  19. Menezes AH, VanGilder JC, Graf CJ, et al.: Craniocervical abnormalities. A comprehensive surgical approach. J Neurosurg 53:444-455, 1980
  20. Nagib MG, Maxwell RE, Chou SN: Klippel-Feil syndrome in children: clinical features and management. Childs Nerv Syst 1:255-263, 1985
  21. O’Connor JF, Cranley WR, McCarten KM, et al: Commentary: atlantoaxial instability in Down syndrome: reassessment by the Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatr Radiol 26:748-749, 1996
  22. Parfenchuck TA, Bertrand SL, Powers MJ, et al: Posterior occipitoatlantal hypermobility in Down syndrome: an analysis of 199 patients. J Pediatr Orthop 14:304-308, 1994
  23. Taggard DA, Menezes AH, Ryken TC: Treatment of Down syndrome-associated craniovertebral junction abnormalities. J Neurosurg 93:205-213, 2000
  24. Thomsen MN, Schneider U, Weber M, et al: Scoliosis and congenital anomalies associated with Klippel-Feil syndrome types I-III. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 22:396-401, 1997
  25. Tracy MR, Dormans JP, Kusumi K: Klippel-Feil syndrome: clinical features and current understanding of etiology. Clin Orthop Relat Res 424:183-190, 2004
  26. Wang H, Rosenbaum AE, Reid CS, et al: Pediatric patients with achondroplasia: CT evaluation of the craniocervical junction. Radiology 164:515-519, 1987
  27. Weijerman ME, de Winter JP: Clinical practice. The care of children with Down syndrome. Eur J Pediatr 169:1445-1452, 2010
  28. Wynn J, King TM, Gambello MJ, et al: Mortality in achondroplasia study: A 42-year follow-up. Am J Med Genet 143A:2502-2511, 2007