Complications of Therapies for Echinococcal Infections of the Central Nervous System in Children

Surgery

The complications of hydatid cyst surgery are various and depend on several factors including the location, size, and multiplicity of the cysts, as well as the presence of contamination.

  • Pneumocephalus, subdural effusion, subdural hematoma, or hemorrhage: These are well-known complications of cranial operations, especially for brain tumors and other space-occupying lesions. Just as for these other entities, they can occur after surgical treatment of a hydatid cyst (11, 47, 48).
  • Hydrocephalus, cysts: Hydrocephalus and/or large CSF-filled cysts can develop after surgical removal of a hydatid cyst. The shunting procedure is a technique used when postoperative CT/MRI shows ventricular dilation, subdural effusion, and/or porencephalic cyst (20, 26, 29).
  • Seizures: Seizures can be problematic after treatment of a hydatid cyst. Long-term antiepileptic therapy is required if the patient has a history of preoperative convulsions (11, 20, 37).
  • Anaphylactic shock: The most dangerous complication of hydatid cyst surgery is anaphylactic shock following intraoperative rupture of the cyst. Death may result (11).

Medical

  • Albendazole: There may be some risk for hepatotoxicity when albendazole is used (6).