Common Causative Pathogens of Brain Abscesses in Children

Age   Pathogens 
Neonate (118)  

Proteus

Citrobacter

Enterobacter

Child (55, 132)  

Streptococcus (aerobic and anaerobic) 60-70%

Gram negative anaerobic 20-40%

Enterobacter

Staphylococcus 10-15%

Route of Infection Condition Pathogens
Hematogenous    
  Congenital heart disease

Streptococcus viridans

Staphylococcus aureus

Streptococcus (aerobic and microaerophillic)

Haemophilus sp.

  Endocarditis

Staphylococcus aureus

Streptococcus (aerobic and microaerophillic)

  Bacteremia

Staphylococcus aureus

Streptococcus (aerobic and microaerophillic)

Gram negative anaerobic bacilli

  Pulmonary infection

Streptococcus (aerobic and anaerobic)

Nocardia

Gram negative anaerobic bacilli

Fusobacterium

Actinomyces

  Skin folliculitis

Staphylococcus aureus

Streptococcus

  Osteomyelitis

Staphylococcus aureus

Enterobacter

Streptococcus

Haemophilus sp.

  Pulmonary foreign body (aspiration)

Streptococcus (aerobic and anaerobic)

Gram negative anaerobic bacilli

Nocardia

Fusobacterium

Actinomyces

Contiguous    
  Otitis media

Streptococcus (aerobic and anaerobic)

Enterobacter

Pseudomonas

Provetella

Bacteroides

  Sinus infection

Streptococcus (aerobic and anaerobic)

Enterobacter

Pseudomonas

Fusobacterium

Bacteroides

Haemophilus sp.

  Meningitis

Staphylococcus

Gram negative bacilli

Streptococcus

Listeria

Haemophilus sp.

  Dental infection

Mixed anaerobes

Streptococcus (aerobic and anaerobic)

Staphylococcus aureus

Enterococcus

Trauma    
  Penetrating cranial injury

Streptococcus

Staphylococcus

Enterococcus

Mycobacterium

Bacteroides

Clostridium

Neurosurgical procedure  

Staphylococcus

Pseudomonas

Enterococcus

Immunological Status   Pathogens
Immunocompromised  

Nocardia

Mycobacteria (TB)

Gram negative anaerobic bacilli

Asperillus

Candida

Enterobacter

Cryptococcus

Toxoplasma gondii

Mucorales

Listeria

(Adapted from 31, 51)