References for Aqueductal Stenosis in Children

  1. Barrer SJ, Schut L, Bruce DA: Global rostral midbrain dysfunction secondary to shunt malfunction and hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 7: 322-325, 1980
  2. Bateman G: Magnetic resonance imaging quantification of compliance and collateral flow in late-onset idiopathic aqueductal stenosis: venous pathophysiology revisited. J Neurosurg107: 951–58, 2007
  3. Beems T, Grotenhuis A: Is the success rate of third ventriculostomy age dependent? An analysis of the results of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in young children. Childs Nerv Syst 18: 605–608, 2002
  4. Berger L, Gauthier S, Leblanc R: Akinetic mutism and parkinsonism associated with obstructive hydrocephalus. Can J Neurol Sci 12: 255-258, 1958
  5. Bickers DS, Adams RD: Hereditary stenosis of aqueduct of Sylvius as a cause of congenital hydrocephalus. Brain 72: 246-262, 1949
  6. Bleasel AF, Ell JJ, Johnston I: Pretectal syndrome and ventricular shunt dysfunction. Neuro-Ophthalmol 12: 193-196, 1992
  7. Boop FA: Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity, in Cinalli C, Maixner WJ, Sainte-Rose C (eds): Pediatric Hydrocephalus. Milan: Springer-Verlag, 2004, pp 121-131
  8. Borenstein DG, Jacobs RP: Aqueductal stenosis: a possible late sequela of central nervous system inflammation in systemic lupus. South Med J 75: 475-7, 1982
  9. Brockmeyer D, Abtin K, Carey L, et al: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy: an outcome analysis. Pediatr Neurosurg 28: 236–240, 1998
  10. Brunelle F: Dynamic MRI of cerebro-spinal fluid in children, in Cinalli C, Maixner WJ, Sainte-Rose C (eds): Pediatric Hydrocephalus. Milan: Springer-Verlag, 2004, pp 397-403
  11. Brunelle F: Modern imaging of hydrocepalus, in Cinalli C, Maixner WJ, Sainte-Rose C (eds): Pediatric Hydrocephalus. Milan: Springer-Verlag, 2004, pp 79-93
  12. Büttner-Ennever JA, Büttner U, Cohen B, et al: Vertical gaze paralysis and the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Brain 105: 125-149, 1982
  13. Castro-Cago M, Alonso A, Eiris-Punal: Autosomal recessive hydrocephalus with aqueductal stenosis. Childs Nerv Syst 12: 188-191, 1996
  14. Catala M: Development of the cerebro-spinal fluid pathways during embryonic and fetal life in humans, in Cinalli C, Maixner WJ, Sainte-Rose C (eds): Pediatric Hydrocephalus. Milan: Springer-Verlag, 2004, pp 19-45
  15. Chatta AS, Delong GR: Sylvian aqueduct syndrome as a sign of acute obstructive hydrocephalus in children. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 38: 288-296, 1975
  16. Cinalli G, Cappabianca P, De Falco R, et al: Current state and future development of intracranial neuroendoscopic surgery. Expert Rev Med Devices 2: 351-373, 2005
  17. Cinalli G, Sainte-Rose C, Chumas P, et al: Failure of third ventriculostomy in the treatment of aqueductal stenosis in children. J Neurosurg 90: 448–454, 1999
  18. Cinalli G, Sainte-Rose C, Simon I ,et al: Sylvian aqueduct syndrome and global rostral midbrain dysfunction associated to shunt malfunction. J Neurosurg 90: 227-236, 1999
  19. Cinalli G, Salazar C, Mallucci C, et al: The role of third ventriculostomy in the management of shunt malfunction. Neurosurgery 43: 1323-1329, 1998
  20. Cinalli G, Spennato P, Cianciulli E, et al: Hydrocephalus and aqueductal stenosis, in Cinalli C, Maixner WJ, Sainte-Rose C (eds): Pediatric Hydrocephalus. Milan: Springer-Verlag, 2004, pp 280-293
  21. Cinalli G, Spennato P, Columbano L, et al: Neuroendoscopic treatment of arachnoid cysts of the quadrigeminal cistern: a series of 14 cases. J Neurosurg Pediatr 6: 489-97, 2010
  22. Cinalli G, Spennato P, Del Basso De Caro ML, et al: Hydrocephalus and Dandy Walker malformation, in Cinalli C, Maixner WJ, Sainte-Rose C (eds): Pediatric Hydrocephalus. Milan: Springer-Verlag, 2004, pp 259-277
  23. Cinalli G, Spennato P, Ruggiero C, et al: Aqueductal stenosis 9 years after mumps meningo-encephalitis. Treatment by endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Childs Nerv Syst: 20: 61-64, 2004
  24. Citrin CM, Sherman JL, Gangarosa RE, et al: Physiology of the CSF flow-void sign: modification by cardiac gating. AJNR 7: 1021-1024, 1984
  25. Conner ES, Foley L, Black PM: Experimental normal-pressure hydrocephalus is accompanied by increased transmantle pressure. J Neurosurg 61: 322-327, 1984
  26. Curran T, Lang AE: Parkinsonian syndromes associated with hydrocephalus: case reports, a review of the literature and pathophysiological hypotheses. Mov Disord 9: 508-520, 1994
  27. Czosnyka M, Czosnyka ZH, Whitfield PC: Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics, in Cinalli C, Maixner WJ, Sainte-Rose C (eds): Pediatric Hydrocephalus. Milan: Springer-Verlag, 2004, pp 47-63.
  28. de Ribaupierre S, Rilliet B, Vernet O, et al: Third ventriculostomy vs ventriculoperitoneal shunt in pediatric obstructive hydrocephalus: results from a Swiss series and literature review. Childs Nerv Syst 23: 527–533, 2007
  29. Di Rocco C, Cinalli G, Massimi L, et al: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in the treatment of hydrocephalus in pediatric patients. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 31:119-219, 2006
  30. Di Rocco C, Di Trapani G, Pettorossi VE, et al: On the pathology of experimental hydrocephalus induced by artificial increase in endoventricular CSF pulse pressure. Childs Brain 5: 81-95, 1979
  31. Di Rocco C, Iannelli A, Tamburrini G: Idrocefalo da stenosi dell’acquedotto ad insorgenza tardiva. Minerva Pediatr 47: 511-520, 1995
  32. Dirks PB: Genetics of hydrocephalus, in Cinalli C, Maixner WJ, Sainte-Rose C (eds): Pediatric Hydrocephalus. Milan: Springer-Verlag, 2004, pp 1-17
  33. Edwards JH: The syndrome of sex-linked hydrocephalus. Arch Dis Child 36: 486-493, 1961
  34. Emery JL, Staschak MC: The size and form of cerebral aqueduct in children. Brain 95: 591-598, 1972
  35. Faggin R, Bernardo A, Stieg P, et al: Hydrocephalus in infants less than six months of age: effectiveness of endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Eur J Pediatr Surg 19: 216– 219, 2009
  36. Fritsch MJ, Kienke S, Manwaring KH, et al: Endoscopic aqueductoplasty and interventriculostomy for the treatment of isolated fourth ventricle in children. Neurosurgery 55: 372–379, 2004
  37. Fukuhara T, Luciano M: Clinical features of late-onset idiopathic aqueductal stenosis. Surg Neurol 55: 132-137, 2001
  38. Fukuhara T, Vorster SJ, Luciano MG: Risk factors for failure of endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 46: 1100-1111, 2000
  39. Gatto M, Micheli F, Pardal MF: Blepharoclonus and parkinsonism associated with aqueductal stenosis. Mov Disord 5: 310-313, 1990
  40. Goumnerova LC, Frim D: Treatment of hydrocephalus with third ventriculostomy: outcome and CSF flow patterns. Pediatr Neurosurg 27: 149–152, 1997
  41. Greitz D: Radiological assessment of hydrocephalus: new theories and implications for therapy. Neurosurg Rev 27: 145-165, 2004
  42. Hanigan WC, Morgan A, Shaaban A, et al: Surgical treatment and neurodevelopment outcome for infants with idiopathic aqueductal stenosis. Childs Nerv Syst 7: 386-390, 1991
  43. Harrison MJG, Robert CM, Uttley D: Benign aqueductal stenosis in adults. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 37: 1322-1328, 1974
  44. Hellwig D, Grotenhuis JA, Tirakotai W, et al: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus. Neurosurg Rev 28: 1–34, 2005
  45. Hirsch JF, Hirsch E, Sainte-Rose C, et al: Stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius (etiology and treatment). J Neurosurg Sci 30: 29-39, 1986
  46. Hirsch JF: Percutaneous ventriculocisternostomies in non-communicating hydrocephalus. Monogr Neural Sci 8: 170-178, 1982
  47. Høffman HJ, Harwood-Nash D, Gilday DL: Percutaneous third ventriculostomy in the management of non-communicating hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 7: 313-321, 1980
  48. Hopf NJ, Grunert P, Fries G, et al: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy: outcome analysis of 100 consecutive procedures. Neurosurgery 44: 795–804, 1999
  49. Jacobson EE, Fletcher DF, Morgan MK, et al: Computer modelling of the CSF flow dynamics of aqueductal stenosis. Med Biol Eng Comput 37: 59-63, 1999
  50. Jacobson EE, Fletcher DF, Morgan MK, et al: Fluid dynamics of the cerebral aqueduct. Pediatr Neurosurg 24: 229-236, 1996
  51. Jellinger G: Anatomopathology of nontumoral aqueductal stenosis. J Neurosurg Sci 30: 1-16, 1986
  52. Johnson RT, Johnson KP, Edmonds CJ: Virus-induced hydrocephalus: development of aqueductal stenosis in hamsters after mumps infection. Science 157: 1066-1067, 1967
  53. Johnson RT, Yates PO: Clinico-pathological aspects of pressure changes at tentorium. Acta Radiol 46: 242-249, 1956
  54. Johnston IH, Kowman-Giles R, Whittle IR: The arrest of treated hydrocephalus in children. A radionuclide study. J Neurosurg 61: 752-756, 1984
  55. Jones RF, Kwok BC, Stening WA, et al: Third ventriculostomy in patients with spinal dysraphism. Indications and contraindications. Eur J Pediatr Surg, 6(suppl): 5-6, 1996
  56. Jones RFC, Stening WA, Brydon M: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Neurosurgery 26: 86-92, 1990
  57. Kaiser G: Hydrocephalus following toxoplasmosis. Z Kinderchir 40 Suppl 1: 10-11, 1985
  58. Kaufmann GE, Clark K: Continuous simultaneous monitoring of intraventricular and cervical subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid pressure to indicate development of cerebral or tonsillar herniation. J Neurosurg 33: 135-140, 1970
  59. Kemp SS, Zimmerman RA, Bilaniuk LT, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebral aqueduct. Neuroradiology 29: 430-436, 1987
  60. Kim S-K, Wang K-C, Cho B-K: Surgical outcome of pediatric hydrocephalus treated by endoscopic III ventriculostomy: prognostic factors and interpretation of postoperative neuroimaging. Childs Nerv Syst 16: 161-169, 2000
  61. Kulkarni AV, Drake JM, Kestle JR, et al: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy vs. cerebrospinal fluid shunt in the treatment of hydrocephalus in children: a propensity score-adjusted analysis. Neurosurgery 67: 588-593, 2010
  62. Kulkarni AV, Hui S, Shams I, et al: Quality of life in obstructive hydrocephalus: endoscopic third ventriculostomy compared to cerebrospinal fluid shunt. Childs Nerv Syst 26:75–79, 2010
  63. Laitt RD, Mallucci CL, Jaspan T, et al: Constructive interference in steady state 3D Fourier transform MRI in the management of hydrocephalus and third ventriculostomy. Neuroradiology 41: 324-327, 1999
  64. Landrieu O, Ninane J, Ferriere G, et al: Aqueductal stenosis in X-linked hydrocephalus: a secondary phenomenon? Dev Med Child Neurol 21: 637-652, 1979
  65. Lapras C, Bret P, Patet JD, et al: Hydrocephalus and aqueductal stenosis. Direct surgical treatment by interventriculostomy (aqueduct cannulation). J Neurosurg Sci 30: 47-53, 1986
  66. Lapras C, Bret P, Tommasi M, et al: Les sténoses de l’aqueduc de Sylvius. Neurochirurgie 26 (Suppl 1): 1-152, 1980
  67. Lee BCP: Magnetic resonance imaging of peri-aqueductal lesions. Clin Radiol 38: 527-533, 1987
  68. Levitsky DB, Mack LA, Nyberg DA, et al: Fetal aqueductal stenosis diagnosed sonographically: how grave is the prognosis? AJR Am J Roentgenol 164: 725-30, 1995
  69. Little JR, Houser OW, MacCarty CS: Clinical manifestations of aqueductal stenosis in adults. J Neurosurg, 43: 546-552, 1975
  70. Longatti P, Fiorindi A, Perin A, et al: Endoscopic anatomy of the cerebral aqueduct. Neurosurgery 61(3 Suppl):1-5, 2007
  71. McConachie NS: The CISS sequence in the pre-operative assessment of neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy, in Cinalli C, Maixner WJ, Sainte-Rose C (eds): Pediatric Hydrocephalus. Milan: Springer-Verlag, 2004, pp 405-410
  72. McCullough DC, Balzer-Martin LA: Current prognosis in overt neonatal hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg 57: 378-383, 1982
  73. Mise B, Klarica M, Seiwerth S, et al: Experimental hydrocephalus and hydromyelia: a new insight in mechanism of their development. Acta Neurochir 138: 862-869, 1996
  74. Mott M, Cummins B: Hydrocephalus related to pulsion diverticulum of lateral ventricle. Arch Dis Child 49: 407-410, 1974
  75. Naidich TP, McLone DG, Hahn YS, et al: Atrial diverticula in severe hydrocephalus. AJNR 3: 257-266, 1982
  76. Naidich TP, Schott LH, Baron RL: Computed tomography in evaluation of hydrocephalus. Radiol Clin North Am 20: 143-167, 1982
  77. Nugent GR, Al-Mefty O, Chou S: Communicating hydrocephalus as a cause of aqueductal stenosis. J Neurosurg 51: 812–818, 1979
  78. O’Brien DF, Javadpour M, Collins DR, et al: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy: an outcome analysis of primary cases and procedures performed after ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction. J Neurosurg (5 Suppl Pediatrics) 103: 393–400, 2005
  79. Oi S, Matsumoto S: Pathophysiology of aqueductal obstruction in isolated IV ventricle after shunting. Childs Nerv Syst 2: 282-286, 1986
  80. Oi S, Shimoda M, Shibata M, et al: Pathophysiology of long-standing overt ventriculomegaly in adults. J Neurosurg 92: 933–940, 2000
  81. Pascual-Castroviejo I, Pascual-Pascual SI, Velázquez-Fragua R, et al:  Aqueductal stenosis in the neurofibromatosis type 1. Presentation of 19 infantile patients. Rev Neurol 45: 18-21, 2007
  82. Pollack IF, Pang D, Albright AL: The long-term outcome in children with late-onset aqueductal stenosis resulting from benign intrinsic tectal tumors. J Neurosurg 80: 681-688, 1994
  83. Quencer RM, Donovan Post MJ, Hinks RS: Cine MR in the evaluation of normal and abnormal CSF flow: intracranial and intraspinal studies. Neuroradiology 32: 371-391, 1990
  84. Raimondi AJ, Clark SJ, McLone DG: Pathogenesis of aqueductal occlusion in congenital murine hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg 45: 66–77, 1976
  85. Raimondi AJ, Samuelson G, Yarzagaray L, et al: Atresia of the foramen of Luschka and Magendie: the Dandy-Walker cyst. J Neursurg 31: 202-216, 1969
  86. Renier D, Saint-Rose C, Pierre-Kahn A, et al: Prenatal hydrocephalus: outcome and prognosis. Childs Nerv Syst 4: 213-222, 1988
  87. Robertson JA, Leggate JRS, Miller JD: Aqueductal stenosis-presentation and prognosis. Br J Neurosurg 4: 101-106, 1990
  88. Rosenthal A, Jouet M, Kenwrick S: Aberrant splicing of neural cell adhesion molucules L1 mRNA in a family with X-linked hydrocephalus. Nature Genet 2: 107-112, 1992
  89. Rotilio A, d’Avella D, de Blasi F, et al: Disendocrine manifestations during non-tumoral aqueductal stenosis. J Neurosurg Sci 30: 71-76, 1986
  90. Rotilio A, Salar G, Dollo C, et al: Aqueductal stenosis following mumps infection. Case report. Ital J Neurol Sci 6: 237-239, 1985
  91. Russell DS: Observations on the pathology of hydrocephalus. Medical Res Counsil, spec rep series No. 265. His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1949
  92. Sainte-Rose C: Third ventriculostomy, in Manwaring KH, Crone KR (eds): Neuroendoscopy. New York: Mary Ann Liebert, 1992, pp 47-62
  93. Schrander-Stumpel C, Vos YJ: L1 Syndrome, in Pagon RA, Bird TC, Dolan CR, et al (eds): GeneReviews (Internet). Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Seattle, 2010 ( (Accessed 11 July 2014)
  94. Schroeder HWS, Gaab MR: Endoscopic aqueductoplasty: technique and results. Neurosurgery 45: 508-518, 1999
  95. Senat MV, Bernard JP, Delezoidë A, et al: Prenetal diagnosis of hydrocephalus-stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius by ultrasound in the first trimester of pregnancy. Report of two cases. Prenat Diagn 21: 1129-1132, 2001
  96. Shah N, Kale K: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a case of aqueductal stenosis. J Indian Med Assoc 97: 501, 503, 1999
  97. Shallat RF, Pawl RP Jerva MJ: Significance of upward gaze palsy (Parinaud’s syndrome) in hydrocephalus due to shunt malfunction. J Neurosurg 38: 717-721, 1973
  98. Sherman JL, Citrin CM, Gangarosa RE, et al: The MR appearance of CSF flow in patients with ventriculomegaly. AJNR 7: 1025-1031, 1986
  99. Siomin V, Cinalli G, Grotenhuis A, et al: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in patients with cerebrospinal fluid infection and/or hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 97: 519-524, 2002
  100. Spadaro A, Ambrosio D, Moraci A, et al: Aqueductal stenosis as isolated localization involving the central nervous system in children affected by von Recklinghausen disease. J Neurosurg Sci 30: 87-93, 1986
  101. Spennato P, Cinalli G, Carannante G, et al: Multiloculated hydrocephalus, in Cinalli C, Maixner WJ, Sainte-Rose C (eds): Pediatric Hydrocephalus. Milan: Springer-Verlag, 2004, pp 219-244
  102. Stellman GR, Bannister CM, Hillier V: The incidence of seizures disorders in children with congenital and acquired hydrocephalus. Z Kinderchir 41 (Suppl 1): 38-41, 1986
  103. Stoquart-El Sankari S, Lehmann P, Gondry-Jouet C, et al: Phase-contrast MR imaging support for the diagnosis of aqueductal stenosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 30: 209-14, 2009
  104. Sufianov AA, Sufianova GZ, Iakimov IA: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in patients younger than 2 years: outcome analysis of 41 hydrocephalus cases. J Neurosurg Pediatrics 5: 392–401, 2010
  105. Teo C, Jones R: Management of hydrocephalus by endoscopic third ventriculostomy in patients with myelomeningocele. Pediatr Neurosurg 25: 57-63, 1996
  106. Teo C: Third ventriculostomy in the treatment of hydrocephalus: experience with more than 120 cases, in Hellwig D, Bauer B (eds): Minimally Invasive Techniques for Neurosurgery. Berlin: Springer, 1998, pp 73–76
  107. Tisell M, Edsbagge M, Stephenson H, et al: Elastance correlates with outcome after endoscopic third ventriculostomy in adults with hydrocephalus caused by primary aqueductal stenosis. Neurosurgery 50: 70-77, 2002
  108. Tuli S, Alshail E, Drake JM: Third ventriculostomy versus cerebrospinal fluid shunt as a first procedure in pediatric hydrocephalus. Pediatr Neurosurg 30: 11-15, 1999
  109. Turnbull IM, Drake CG: Membranous occlusion of the aqueduct of Sylvius. J Neurosurg 24: 24-33, 1966
  110. Van Gijn J: Franciscus Sylvius (1614–1672). J Neurol 248: 915–916, 2001
  111. Villani R, Tomei G, Gaini SM, et al: Long-term outcome in aqueductal stenosis. Childs Nerv Syst 11: 180-185, 1995
  112. Vindigni G, Del Fabro P, Facchin P, et al: On the neurological complications of internal and external shunt in patients with non-neoplastic stenosis of the aqueduct. J Neurosurg Sci 30: 83-86, 1986
  113. Wakai S, Narita J, Hashimoto K, et al: Diverticulum of the lateral ventricle causing cerebellar ataxia. Case report. J Neurosurg 59: 895-898, 1983
  114. Warf BC: Comparison of endoscopic third ventriculostomy alone and combined with choroid plexus cauterization in infants younger than 1 year of age: a prospective study in 550 African children. J Neurosurg (6 Suppl Pediatrics) 103: 475–481, 2005
  115. Wolinsky JS: Mumps virus induced hydrocephalus in hamsters. Ultrastructure of the chronic infection. Lab Invest 37: 229-236, 1977
  116. Yamasaki M, Arita N, Hiraga S, et al: A clinical and neuroradiological study of X-linked hydrocephalus in Japan. J Neurosurg 83: 50-55, 1995