References for Tethered Cord Syndrome With a Normally Positioned Conus in Children

  1. Barson AJ: The vertebral level of termination of the spinal cord during normal and abnormal development. J Anat 106:489-497,1970
  2. Breig A: Adverse Mechanical Tension in the Central Nervous System: An Analysis of Cause and Effect. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1978, p 152
  3. Coleman LT, Zimmerman RA, Rorke LB: Ventriculus terminalis of the conus medullaris: MR findings in children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 16:1421-1426,1995
  4. DiPietro MA: The conus medullaris: normal us findings throughout childhood. Radiology 188:149-153,1993
  5. Fitz CR, Harwood-Nash DC: The tethered conus. AJR Am J Roentgenology 125:515-523,1975
  6. Garceau GJ: The filum terminale syndrome. JBJS 35-A:711-716, 1953
  7. Grogan JP, Daniels DL, Williams AL, et al: The normal conus medullaris: CT criteria for recognition. Radiology 151:661-664,1984
  8. Hansasuta A, Tubbs RS, Oakes WJ: Filum terminale fusion and dural sac termination: study in 27 cadavers 30:176-179,1999
  9. Hendrick EB, Hoffman HJ, Humphreys RP: The tethered spinal cord. Clin Neurosurg 30:457-463,1983
  10. Khoury AE, Hendrick EB, McLorie GA, et al: Occult spinal dysraphism: clinical and urodynamic outcome after division of the filum terminale. J Urol 144:426-429,1990
  11. Khoury AE, Balcom A, McLorie GA, et al: Clinical experience in urological involvement with tethered cord syndrome, in Yamada S (ed): Tethered Cord Syndrome. Park Ridge, Illinois: American Association of Neurological Surgeons, 1996, pp 89-98
  12. Kondo A, Kato K, Kanai S, et al: Bladder dysfunction secondary to tethered cord syndrome in adults: is it curable? J Urol 135:313-316,1986
  13. Kondo A, Gotoh M, Kato K, et al: Treatment of persistent enuresis. Results of severing a tight filum terminale. Br J Urol 62:42-45,1988
  14. Kriss VM, Kriss TC, Babcock DS: The ventriculus terminalis of the spinal cord in the neonate: a normal variant on sonography. AJR 165:1491-1493,1995
  15. McLendon RE, Oakes WJ, Heinz ER, et al: Adipose tissue in the filum terminale: a computed tomographic finding that may indicate tethering of the spinal cord. Neurosurgery 22:873-876,1988
  16. McLone DG: Occult dysraphism and the tethered spinal cord, in Choix M, DiRocco C, Hockley A, et al (eds): Pediatric Neurosurgery. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 1999, pp 61-78
  17. Yundt KD, Park TS, Kaufman BA: Normal diameter of filum terminale in children: in vivo measurement. Pediatr Neurosurg 27:257-259,1997
  18. Moufarrij NA, Palmer JM, Hahn JF, et al: Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging and surgical findings in the tethered spinal cord. Neurosurgery 25:341-346,1989
  19. Nazar GB, Casale AJ, Roberts JG, et al: Occult filum terminale syndrome. Pediatr Neurosurg 23: 228-235,1995
  20. Nievelstein RAJ, Hartwig NG, Vermeij-Keers C, et al: Embryonic development of the mammalian caudal neural tube. Teratology 48:21-31,1993
  21. Raghavan N, Barkovich AJ, Edwards M, et al: MR imaging in the TSC syndrome. AJR 152:843-852,1989
  22. Reimann AF, Anson BJ: Vertebral level of termination of the spinal cord with report of a case of sacral cord: Anat Rec 88:127-138,1944
  23. Robbin ML, Filly RA, Goldstein RB: The normal location of the fetal conus medullaris. J Ultrasound Med 13:541-546,1994
  24. Şahin F, Selçuki, Ecin N, et al: Level of conus medullaris in term and preterm neonates. Arch Dis Child 77:F67-F69,1997
  25. Saifuddin A, Burnett SJD, White J: The variation of position of the conus medullaris in an adult population: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Spine 23:1452-1456,1998
  26. Salbacak A, Büyükmumcu M, Malas MA, et al: An investigation of the conus medullaris and filum terminale variations in human fetuses. Surg Radiol Anat 22:89-92,2000
  27. Selçuki M, Coşkun K: Management of the tight filum terminale syndrome with special emphasis on normal level conus medullaris (nlcm). Surg Neurol 50:318-22,1998
  28. Selçuki M, Ünlü A, Uğur H, et al: Patients with urinary incontinence often benefit from surgical detethering of tight filum terminale. Child’s Nerv Syst 16:150-155,2000
  29. Tani S, Yamada S, Knighton RS: Extensibility of the lumbar and sacral cord: pathophysiology of the TSC in cats. J Neurosurg 66:116-123,1987
  30. Taylor TKF, Coolican MJR: Injuries of the conus medullaris. Paraplegia 26:393-400,1988.
  31. Tubbs RS, Elton S, Bartolucci AA, et al: The position of the conus medullaris in children with a Chiari I malformation. Pediatr Neurosurg 33:249-251, 2000
  32. Tubbs RS, Salter G, Grabb PA, et al: The denticulate ligament: anatomy and functional significance. J Neurosurg (Spine 2) 94:271-275,2001
  33. Vernet O, O’Gorman AM, Farmer JP, et al: Use of the prone position in the mri evaluation of spinal cord retethering. Pediatr Neurosurg 25:286-294,1996
  34. Vettivel S: Vertebral level of the termination of the spinal cord in human fetuses. J Anat 179:149-161,1991
  35. Warder DE, Oakes WJ: Tethered cord syndrome and the conus in a normal position. Neurosurgery 33:374-378,1993
  36. Warder DE, Oakes WJ: Tethered cord syndrome: the low-lying and normally positioned conus. Neurosurgery 34:597-600,1994
  37. Warder DE: Tethered cord syndrome and occult spinal dysraphism. Neurosurg Focus 10:1-9,2001
  38. Wilson DA, Prince JR: MR imaging determination of the location of the normal conus medullaris throughout childhood. AJR 152:1029-1032,1989
  39. Yamada S, Zinke DE, Sanders D: Pathophysiology of “tethered cord syndrome”. J Neurosurg 54:494-503,1981
  40. Yamada S, Iacono RP, Douglas C, et al: Tethered cord syndrome in adults, in Yamada S (ed): Tethered Cord Syndrome, Park Ridge, IL: American Association of Neurological Surgeons, 1996, pp 149-165
  41. Yamada S, Iacono R, Morgese V, et al: Tethered cord syndrome, in Menezes AH, Sonntag VKH (eds): Principles of Spinal Surgery, vol 1. New York: McGraw Hill, 1996, pp 433-445