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References for Syringomyelia in Children

  1. Armonda RA, Citrin CM, Foley KT, et al: Quantitative cine-mode magnetic resonance imaging of Chiari I malformations: an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. Neurosurgery 35:214-223; discussion 223-214, 1994
  2. Batzdorf U: Chiari I malformation with syringomyelia. Evaluation of surgical therapy by magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg 68:726-730, 1988
  3. Batzdorf U: Syringomyelia Related to Abnormalities of the Craniovertebral Junction. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991
  4. Batzdorf U: Syringomyelia, Chiari Malformations, and Hydromyelia, 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1996
  5. Bhadelia RA, Bogdan AR, Wolpert SM, et al: Cerebrospinal fluid flow waveforms: analysis in patients with Chiari I malformation by means of gated phase-contrast MR imaging velocity measurements. Radiology 196:195-202, 1995
  6. Charney EB, Rorke LB, Sutton LN, et al: Management of Chiari II complications in infants with myelomeningocele. J Pediatr 111:364-371, 1987
  7. Dyste GN, Menezes AH, VanGilder JC: Symptomatic Chiari malformations. An analysis of presentation, management, and long-term outcome. J Neurosurg 71:159-168, 1989
  8. Elster AD, Chen MY: Chiari I malformations: clinical and radiologic reappraisal. Radiology 183:347-353, 1992
  9. Hida K, Iwasaki Y, Koyanagi I, et al: Surgical indication and results of foramen magnum decompression versus syringosubarachnoid shunting for syringomyelia associated with Chiari I malformation. Neurosurgery 37:673-678; discussion 678-679, 1995
  10. Iskandar B, Oakes W: The Chiari malformations, in Albright A, Pollack I, Adelson P (eds): Principles and Practice of Pediatric Neurosurgery, 1st ed. New York: Thieme, 1999, pp 247-270
  11. Iskandar BJ, Oakes WJ, McLaughlin C, et al: Terminal syringohydromyelia and occult spinal dysraphism. J Neurosurg 81:513-519, 1994
  12. Klekamp J, Batzdorf U, Samii M, et al: Treatment of syringomyelia associated with arachnoid scarring caused by arachnoiditis or trauma. J Neurosurg 86:233-240, 1997
  13. La Marca F, Herman M, Grant JA, et al: Presentation and management of hydromyelia in children with Chiari type-II malformation. Pediatr Neurosurg 26:57-67, 1997
  14. Levy WJ, Mason L, Hahn JF: Chiari malformation presenting in adults: a surgical experience in 127 cases. Neurosurgery 12:377-390, 1983
  15. Mampalam TJ, Andrews BT, Gelb D, et al: Presentation of type I Chiari malformation after head trauma. Neurosurgery 23:760-762, 1988
  16. McGirt MJ, Attenello FJ, Atiba A, et al: Symptom recurrence after suboccipital decompression for pediatric Chiari I malformation: analysis of 256 consecutive cases. Childs Nerv Syst May 31, 2008 [Epub ahead of publication]
  17. Medow JE, Sansone J, Iskandar BJ: Syringomyelia and hydromyelia, in Albright AL, Pollack I, Adelson P (eds): Principles and Practice of Pediatric Neurosurgery, 2nd ed. New York: Thieme, 2008, pp 444-473
  18. Menezes AH: Chiari I malformations and hydromyelia–complications. Pediatr Neurosurg 17:146-154, 1991
  19. Mikulis DJ, Diaz O, Egglin TK, et al: Variance of the position of the cerebellar tonsils with age: preliminary report. Radiology 183:725-728, 1992
  20. Milhorat TH, Capocelli AL, Jr., Anzil AP, et al: Pathological basis of spinal cord cavitation in syringomyelia: analysis of 105 autopsy cases. J Neurosurg 82:802-812, 1995
  21. Milhorat TH, Johnson RW, Milhorat RH, et al: Clinicopathological correlations in syringomyelia using axial magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosurgery 37:206-213, 1995
  22. Milhorat TH, Miller JI, Johnson WD, et al: Anatomical basis of syringomyelia occurring with hindbrain lesions. Neurosurgery 32:748-754; discussion 754, 1993
  23. Muhonen MG, Menezes AH, Sawin PD, et al: Scoliosis in pediatric Chiari malformations without myelodysplasia. J Neurosurg 77:69-77, 1992
  24. Nagib MG: An approach to symptomatic children (ages 4-14 years) with Chiari type I malformation. Pediatr Neurosurg 21:31-35, 1994
  25. Naidich TP, McLone DG, Fulling KH: The Chiari II malformation: Part IV. The hindbrain deformity. Neuroradiology 25:179-197, 1983
  26. Naidich TP, Pudlowski RM, Naidich JB: Computed tomographic signs of the Chiari II malformation. III: ventricles and cisterns. Radiology 134:657-663, 1980
  27. Naidich TP, Pudlowski RM, Naidich JB, et al: Computed tomographic signs of the Chiari II malformation. Part I: Skull and dural partitions. Radiology 134:65-71, 1980
  28. Nohria V, Oakes WJ: Chiari I malformation: a review of 43 patients. Pediatr Neurosurg 16:222-227, 1990-1991
  29. Oakes WJ: Chiari malformations, hydromyelia, and syringomyelia, in Wilkins R, Rengachary S (eds): Neurosurgery, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp 3593-3616
  30. Oakes WJ: The Chiari malformations of the child, in Menezes AH, Sonntag V (eds): Principles of Spinal Surgery, 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp 379-394
  31. Ono A, Ueyama K, Okada A, et al: Adult scoliosis in syringomyelia associated with Chiari I malformation. Spine 27:E23-28, 2002
  32. Paul KS, Lye RH, Strang FA, et al: Arnold-Chiari malformation. Review of 71 cases. J Neurosurg 58:183-187, 1983
  33. Potter K, Saifuddin A: Pictorial review: MRI of chronic spinal cord injury. Br J Radiol 76:347-352, 2003
  34. Samii M, Klekamp J: Surgical results of 100 intramedullary tumors in relation to accompanying syringomyelia. Neurosurgery 35:865-873; discussion 873, 1994
  35. Samuelsson L, Bergstrom K, Thuomas KA, et al: MR imaging of syringohydromyelia and Chiari malformations in myelomeningocele patients with scoliosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 8:539-546, 1987
  36. Schmitt HP: “Inverse Chiari type II syndrome” in untreated hydrocephalus and its relationship to typical Arnold-Chiari syndrome. Brain Dev 3:271-275, 1981
  37. Silberstein M, Tress BM, Hennessy O: Delayed neurologic deterioration in the patient with spinal trauma: role of MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 13:1373-1381, 1992
  38. Tubbs RS, McGirt MJ, Oakes WJ: Surgical experience in 130 pediatric patients with Chiari I malformations. J Neurosurg 99:291-296, 2003
  39. Wealthall SR, Whittaker GE, Greenwood N: The relationship of apnoea and stridor in spina bifida to other unexplained infant deaths. Dev Med Child Neurol 16:107-116, 1974
  40. Worley G, Erwin CW, Schuster JM, et al: BAEPs in infants with myelomeningocele and later development of Chiari II malformation-related brainstem dysfunction. Dev Med Child Neurol 36:707-715, 1994
  41. Strahle J, Muraszko KM, Kapurch J, et al: Chiari malformation Type I and syrinx in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg Pediatr: 205-13, 2011
  42. Schurch B, Wichmann W, Rossier AB: Post-traumatic syringomyelia (cystic myelopathy): a prospective study of 449 patients with spinal cord injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 60:61-67, 1996
  43. Oakley JC, Ojemann GA, Alvord EC Jr: Posttraumatic syringomyelia. Case report. J Neurosurg 55:276-281, 1981
  44. Cho KH, Iwasaki Y, Imamura H, et al: Experimental model of posttraumatic syringomyelia: the role of adhesive arachnoiditis in syrinx formation. J Neurosurg 80:133-9, 1994
  45. Lohle PN, Wurzer HA, Hoogland PH, et al: The pathogenesis of syringomyelia in spinal cord ependymoma. Clinical Neurol Neurosurg 96:323-6, 1994
  46. Samii M, Klekamp J: Surgical results of 100 intramedullary tumors in relation to accompanying syringomyelia. Neurosurgery 35:865-873, 1994
  47. Greitz D: Unraveling the riddle of syringomyelia. Neurosurg Rev 29:251-263, 2006
  48. Milhorat TH, Chou MW, Trinidad EM, et al: Chiari I malformation redefined: clinical and radiographic findings for 364 symptomatic patients. Neurosurgery 44:1005-1017, 1999
  49. Markunas CA, Tubbs RS, Moftakhar R, et al. Clinical, radiologic, and genetic similarities between patients with Chiari 1 and 0 malformations. J Neurosurg:Pediatr 9:372-378, 2012
  50. Greenfield JG, Graham DI, Lantos PL: Greenfield’s Neuropathology, 7th ed. New York: Arnold, 2002, p 429
  51. Singhal A, Bowen-Roberts T, Steinbok P, et al: Natural history of untreated syringomyelia in pediatric patients. Neurosurg Focus 31(6):E13, 2011
  52. Magge SN, Smyth MD, Governale LS, et al: Idiopathic syrinx in the pediatric population: a combined center experience. J Neurosurg Pediatr 7:30-36, 2011
  53. Heiss JD, Patronas N, DeVroom HL, et al: Elucidating the pathophysiology of syringomyelia. J Neurosurg 91:553-562, 1999
  54. Tubbs, RS, Beckman J, Naftel RP, et al: Institutional experience with 500 cases of surgically treated pediatric Chiari malformation Type I. J Neurosurg Pediatr 7: 248-256, 2011
  55. Yeoun LJ, Hoon PJ, Jung-Eun C, et al: Pre- and post-untethering courses of syringomyelia associated with tethered spinal cord. Neurosurgery 71:23-29, 2012
  56. Lonser RR, Weil RJ, Wanebo JE, et al: Surgical management of spinal cord hemangioblastomas in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Neurosurg 98: 106-116, 2003
  57. Klekamp J: The pathophysiology of syringomyelia – historical overview and current concept. Acta Neurochir (Wien)144:649-664, 2002
  58. Vaquero J, Martínez R, Salazar J, et al: Syringosubarachnoid shunt for treatment of syringomyelia. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 84:105-109, 1987
  59. Yabe I, Kikuchi S, Tashiro K: Familial syringomyelia: the first Japanese case and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 105:69-71, 2002
  60. Markunas CA, Tubbs RS, Moftakhar R, Ashley-Koch AE, Gregory SG, Oakes WJ, Speer MC, Iskandar BJ. Clinical, radiological, and genetic similarities between patients with Chiari Type I and Type 0 malformations. J Neurosurg Pediatr 9:372-378, 2012
  61. Gardner WJ: Hydrodynamic mechanism of syringomyelia: its relationship to myelocele. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 28:247-259, 1965
  62. Williams B: Progress in syringomyelia. Neurol Res 8:130-145, 1986
  63. Oldfield EH, Muraszko K, Shawker TH, et al: Pathophysiology of syringomyelia associated with Chiari I malformation of the cerebellar tonsils. Implications for diagnosis and treatment. J Neurosurg 80:3-15, 1994
  64. d’Angers O: Traité des maladies de la moëlle épinière, contenant l’histoire anatomique, physiologique et pathologique de ce centre nerveux chez l’homme. 2nd ed. Paris: Crevot,1827. Reprinted: Paris: Cercle du Livre Precieux, 1965, pp 2-42
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  66. Portal A, Senac MO: Cours d’Anatomie Med., vol 4. Paris: Baudouin 1804, p 117
  67. Abbe R, Coley WB: Syringomyelia, operation-exploration of the cord, withdrawal of fluid, exhibition of patient. J Nerv Ment Dis 17: 512-520, 1892
  68. Brunner JC, in Bonet T (ed): Sepulchretum, book 1, 2 ed. Geneva: Cramer and Perachon, 1700, p 396
  69. Newton EJ: Syringomyelia as a manifestation of defective fourth ventricular drainage. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 44: 194-213, 1969
  70. American Syringomyelia and Chiari Alliance Project: The prevalence of SM in the U.S. Longview, TX: American Syringomyelia and Chiari Alliance Project, 2009 (http://asap.org/index.php/medical-articles/the-prevalence-of-sm-in-the-u-s/) [Acccessed 28 February 2014]
  71. Gardner WJ, Goodall RJ: The surgical treatment of Arnold-Chiari malformation in adults: an explanation of its mechanism and importance of encephalography in its diagnosis. J Neurosurg 7:199–213, 1950
  72. Gardner WJ, Angel J: The cause of syringomyelia and its surgical treatment. Cleve Clin Q 25:4-17, 1958
  73. Loth F, Yardimci MA, Alperin N: Hydrodynamic modeling of cerebrospinal fluid motion within the spinal cavity. J Biomech Eng 123:71-79, 2001
  74. Kalata W, Martin BA, Oshinski J, et al: Hydrodynamics of cerebrospinal fluid in spinal canal with Chiari malformation and syringomyelia. 2004 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Anaheim, CA, November 2004