References for Chiari Malformations in Children

  1. Armonda RA, Citrin CM, Foley KT, et al: Quantitative cine-mode magnetic resonance imaging of Chiari I malformations: an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. Neurosurgery 35:214-223; discussion 223-214, 1994
  2. Batzdorf U: Chiari I malformation with syringomyelia. Evaluation of surgical therapy by magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg 68:726-730, 1988
  3. Batzdorf U: Syringomyelia Related to Abnormalities of the Craniovertebral Junction. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991
  4. Batzdorf U: Syringomyelia, Chiari Malformations, and Hydromyelia, ed 4. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1996
  5. Bhadelia RA, Bogdan AR, Wolpert SM et al: Cerebrospinal fluid flow waveforms: analysis in patients with Chiari I malformation by means of gated phase-contrast MR imaging velocity measurements. Radiology 196:195-202, 1995
  6. Charney EB, Rorke LB, Sutton LN, et al: Management of Chiari II complications in infants with myelomeningocele. J Pediatr 111:364-371, 1987
  7. Dyste GN, Menezes AH, VanGilder JC: Symptomatic Chiari malformations. An analysis of presentation, management, and long-term outcome. J Neurosurg 71:159-168, 1989
  8. Elster AD, Chen MY: Chiari I malformations: clinical and radiologic reappraisal. Radiology 183:347-353, 1992
  9. Hida K, Iwasaki Y, Koyanagi I, et al: Surgical indication and results of foramen magnum decompression versus syringosubarachnoid shunting for syringomyelia associated with Chiari I malformation. Neurosurgery 37:673-678; discussion 678-679, 1995
  10. Iskandar B, Oakes W: The Chiari malformations, in Albright A, Pollack I, Adelson P (eds): Principles and Practice of Pediatric Neurosurgery, ed 1. New York: Thieme, 1999, pp165-87
  11. Iskandar BJ, Oakes WJ, McLaughlin C, et al: Terminal syringohydromyelia and occult spinal dysraphism. J Neurosurg 81:513-519, 1994
  12. Klekamp J, Batzdorf U, Samii M, et al: Treatment of syringomyelia associated with arachnoid scarring caused by arachnoiditis or trauma. J Neurosurg 86:233-240, 1997
  13. La Marca F, Herman M, Grant JA, et al: Presentation and management of hydromyelia in children with Chiari type-II malformation. Pediatr Neurosurg 26:57-67, 1997
  14. Levy WJ, Mason L, Hahn JF: Chiari malformation presenting in adults: a surgical experience in 127 cases. Neurosurgery 12:377-390, 1983
  15. Mampalam TJ, Andrews BT, Gelb D, et al: Presentation of type I Chiari malformation after head trauma. Neurosurgery 23:760-762, 1988
  16. McGirt MJ, Attenello FJ, Atiba A, et al: Symptom recurrence after suboccipital decompression for pediatric Chiari I malformation: analysis of 256 consecutive cases. Childs Nerv Syst 24: 1333-1339, 2008
  17. Medow JE, Sansone J, Iskandar BJ: Syringomyelia and hydromyelia, in Albright AL, Pollack I, Adelson P (eds): Principles and Practice of Pediatric Neurosurgery, ed 2. New York: Thieme, 2008, pp 444-473
  18. Menezes AH: Chiari I malformations and hydromyelia–complications. Pediatr Neurosurg 17:146-154, 1991
  19. Mikulis DJ, Diaz O, Egglin TK, et al: Variance of the position of the cerebellar tonsils with age: preliminary report. Radiology 183:725-728, 1992
  20. Milhorat TH, Capocelli AL Jr, Anzil AP, et al: Pathological basis of spinal cord cavitation in syringomyelia: analysis of 105 autopsy cases. J Neurosurg 82:802-812, 1995
  21. Milhorat TH, Johnson RW, Milhorat RH, et al: Clinicopathological correlations in syringomyelia using axial magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosurgery 37:206-213, 1995
  22. Milhorat TH, Miller JI, Johnson WD, et al: Anatomical basis of syringomyelia occurring with hindbrain lesions. Neurosurgery 32:748-754; discussion 754, 1993
  23. Muhonen MG, Menezes AH, Sawin PD, et al: Scoliosis in pediatric Chiari malformations without myelodysplasia. J Neurosurg 77:69-77, 1992
  24. Nagib MG: An approach to symptomatic children (ages 4-14 years) with Chiari type I malformation. Pediatr Neurosurg 21:31-35, 1994
  25. Naidich TP, McLone DG, Fulling KH: The Chiari II malformation: Part IV. The hindbrain deformity. Neuroradiology 25:179-197, 1983
  26. Naidich TP, Pudlowski RM, Naidich JB: Computed tomographic signs of the Chiari II malformation. III: ventricles and cisterns. Radiology 134:657-663, 1980
  27. Naidich TP, Pudlowski RM, Naidich JB, et al: Computed tomographic signs of the Chiari II malformation. Part I: Skull and dural partitions. Radiology 134:65-71, 1980
  28. Nohria V, Oakes WJ: Chiari I malformation: a review of 43 patients. Pediatr Neurosurg 16:222-227, 1990-1991
  29. Oakes WJ: Chiari malformations, hydromyelia, and syringomyelia, in Wilkins R, Rengachary S (eds): Neurosurgery, ed 2. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp 3593-3616
  30. Oakes WJ: The Chiari malformations of the child, in Menezes AH, Sonntag V (eds): Principles of Spinal Surgery ed 1. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp 379-394
  31. Ono A, Ueyama K, Okada A, et al: Adult scoliosis in syringomyelia associated with Chiari I malformation. Spine 27:E23-28, 2002
  32. Paul KS, Lye RH, Strang FA, et al: Arnold-Chiari malformation. Review of 71 cases. J Neurosurg 58:183-187, 1983
  33. Potter K, Saifuddin A: Pictorial review: MRI of chronic spinal cord injury. Br J Radiol 76:347-352, 2003
  34. Samii M, Klekamp J: Surgical results of 100 intramedullary tumors in relation to accompanying syringomyelia. Neurosurgery 35:865-873; discussion 873, 1994
  35. Samuelsson L, Bergstrom K, Thuomas KA, et al: MR imaging of syringohydromyelia and Chiari malformations in myelomeningocele patients with scoliosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 8:539-546, 1987
  36. Schmitt HP: “Inverse Chiari type II syndrome” in untreated hydrocephalus and its relationship to typical Arnold-Chiari syndrome. Brain Dev 3:271-275, 1981
  37. Silberstein M, Tress BM, Hennessy O: Delayed neurologic deterioration in the patient with spinal trauma: role of MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 13:1373-1381, 1992
  38. Tubbs RS, McGirt MJ, Oakes WJ: Surgical experience in 130 pediatric patients with Chiari I malformations. J Neurosurg 99:291-296, 2003
  39. Wealthall SR, Whittaker GE, Greenwood N: The relationship of apnoea and stridor in spina bifida to other unexplained infant deaths. Dev Med Child Neurol 16:107-116, 1974
  40. Worley G, Erwin CW, Schuster JM, et al: BAEPs in infants with myelomeningocele and later development of Chiari II malformation-related brainstem dysfunction. Dev Med Child Neurol 36:707-715, 1994
  41. Massimi L, Peppucci E, Peraio S, et al: History of Chiari type I malformation. Neurol Sci 32 Suppl 3: S263-5, 2011
  42. Sandoval-Garcia C, Iskandar BJ: Research on the pathophysiology of Chiari I-related symptoms and syringomyelia, with emphasis on dynamic MRI techniques, in Oakes WJ, Tubbs RS (eds): The Chiari Malformations: a Comprehensive Text, ed 1. New York: Elsevier, 2013, pp 171-180
  43. Furuya K, Sano K, Segawa H, et al: Symptomatic tonsillar ectopia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 64:221–226, 1998
  44. Meadows J, Kraut M, Guarnieri M, et al: Asymptomatic Chiari type I malformations identified on magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg 92:920-926, 2000
  45. Strahle J, Muraszko KM, Kapurch J, et al: Chiari malformation type I and syrinx in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg Pediatr 8:205-13, 2011
  46. Loukas M, Shayota BJ, Oelhafen K, et al: Associated disorders of Chiari type I malformations: a review. Neurosurg Focus 31:E3, 2011
  47. Boyles AL, Enterline DS, Hammock PH, et al: Phenotypic definition of Chiari type I malformation coupled with high-density SNP genome screen shows significant evidence for linkage to regions on chromosomes 9 and 15. Am J Med Genet 140: 2776-2785, 2006
  48. Speer MC, George TM, Enterline DS, et al: A genetic hypothesis for Chiari I malformation with or without syringomyelia. Neurosurg Focus 8(3):E12, 2000
  49. Tubb RS, Pugh, JA, Oakes WJ: Chiari malformations, in Winn HR (ed): Youmans Neurological Surgery, ed 6. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2011, pp 1918 – 1927
  50. Mortazavi MM, Tubbs RS, Hankinson TC, et al: The first posterior fossa decompression for Chiari malformation: the contributions of Cornelis Joachimus van Houweninge Graftdijk and a review of the infancy of “Chiari decompression.” Childs Nerv Syst 27:1851-1856, 2011
  51. Bejjani GK: Definition of the adult Chiari malformation: a brief historical overview. Neurosurg Focus 11:E1, 2001
  52. Tubbs RS, Oakes WJ: The Chiari malformations: A historical context, in Oakes WJ, Tubbs RS (eds): The Chiari Malformations: a Comprehensive Text, ed 1. New York: Elsevier, 2013, pp 5-12
  53. Gardner WJ, Goodall RJ: The surgical treatment of Arnold-Chiari malformation in adults; an explanation of its mechanism and importance of encephalography in diagnosis. J Neurosurg 7:199-206, 1950
  54. Tubbs RS, Oakes, WJ: Associated disorders of Chiari type I malformations, in Oakes WJ, Tubbs RS (eds): The Chiari Malformations: a Comprehensive Text, ed 1. New York: Elsevier, 2013, pp 127-133
  55. Bollo RJ, Riva-Cambrin J, Brockmeyer MM, et al: Complex Chiari malformations in children: an analysis of preoperative risk factors for occipitocervical fusion: Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr 10:134-141, 2012
  56. Rocque BG, George TM, Kestle J, et al: Treatment practices for Chiari I malformation with syringomyelia: results of a survey of the American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons. J Neurosurg Pediatr 8:430-437, 2011
  57. Hankinson T, Tubbs RS, Wellons JC: Duraplasty or not? An evidence-based review of the pediatric Chiari I malformation. Childs Nerv Syst. 27:35-40, 2011
  58. Kalb S, Perez-Orribo L, Mahan M, et al: Evaluation of operative procedures for symptomatic outcome after decompression surgery for Chiari type I malformation. J Clin Neurosci 19:1268-1272, 2012
  59. Chiari H: Über Veränderungen des Kleinhirns infolge von Hydro- cephalie des Grosshirns. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 17:1172–1175, 1891
  60. Chiari H: Über Veränderungen des Kleinhirns, des Pons und der Me- dulla oblongata infolge von kongeni- taler Hydrocephalie des Grosshirns. Denkschr Akad Wiss Wien 63:71–116, 1896
  61. Penfield W, Coburn DF: Arnold-Chiari malformation and its operative treatment. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 40: 328-336, 1938
  62. von Houwenige Graftdijk: Heelkünde voor Den Medicus Practicus (Doctorial Thesis). University of Leiden, 1932
  63. Russell DS, Donald C: The mechanism of internal hydrocephalus in spina bifida. Brain 58: 203-215, 1935
  64. McConnell AA, Parker HL: A deformity of the hind-brain associated with internal hydrocephalus. Its relation to the Arnold-Chiari malformation. Brain 61: 415-429, 1938