Complications of Therapies for Cervical Encephaloceles in Children

Surgery

  • Seizures: Seizures should be treated with the appropriate anticonvulsants.
  • Hydrocephalus: Hydrocephalus should be treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for CSF diversion to prevent leakage of CSF from the encephalocele repair site and associated infection.
  • Lower brainstem dysfunction: Extensive neurological deficits such as cranial nerve deficits, inadequate sucking and feeding abilities, respiratory insufficiency, spasticity, blindness, and profound developmental delay are possible after repair of a cervical encephalocele.
  • Stroke: Stroke can occur as a consequence of anomalous venous drainage associated with the encephalocele sac and should be treated with supportive therapy.